The psychoanalytic discourse is a very powerful tool as it may be used to deconstruct other discourses, analyse its formulations and to revise social categories and its political implications. It can also provide the framework to explain the genesis and structure of human subjectivity.  But far from being a unified field, the theoretical body discovered by Freud has developed into different schools with their own views and particular conceptualizations.   Most of the psychoanalytical approaches might be useful to analyse other theories and social categories, as they seem to share a similar logic of thought. Also, they enable us to find alternatives to explanations based on a unilateral point of view.   However when considering their views on human subjectivity and the way it is structured, they might differ significantly or even be contradictory which can lead to erroneous conceptualizations. Throughout the history of the feminist movement many intellectuals have tried to analyze the issue of "being a  woman", its essence and the specificity of her desire taking into account the development of psychoanalytical ideas from different traditions and readings of Freud. I will try to summarize some of them and point out their implications, and finally will try to outline some concepts - more specifically Lacan's theorization - that may give a tentative answer to the question: what is the essence of woman?  

Mary Lynne Ellis and Noreen O’Connor


This extract from our book Questioning Identities; Philosophy in Psychoanalytic Practice (Karnac 2010) contextualises the relevance of  20th and 21st century European philosophy to clinical work with individuals from a diversity of race, class, and cultural backgrounds, genders, and sexualities. Our book is principally concerned with questions of identity which arise consciously and unconsciously in the analytical relationship. Further details of the book can be found at:
http://www.karnacbooks.com/isbn/9781855758957

"On Addiction" - Final Thesis - Master of Arts in Psychoanalysis, 2006, Middlesex University, London, UK.

2. FREUD'S THEORIZATIONS ON ADDICTION

The Cocaine Papers
Civilizations and its Discontents 

3.INTOXICATION AND TOXICOMANIA 

4.ADDICTION AND THE ACTUAL NEUROSES
5.CAUSES OF ADDICTION
Freud's ideas on Pain
Cancellation of Pain
The Pharmakon
Administration of Enjoyment

6.TOXICOMANIA AND THE CLINICAL STRUCTURES

7.THE MARRIAGE WITH THE PHALLUS

8. CONCLUSION

NOTES
BIBLIOGRAPHY